The arrival of the Tudors in 1485, with Henry VII defeating York's favourite Richard III, brought rocky times for the city. There were plots, bankruptcy, protest and lots of religious upheaval. The dramatic shifts in policy by Henry VIII, and his offspring, brought confusion and sometimes resistance in York, the power base of both Crown and Church.
The 17th century was a revolutionary time in the history of England, and York was again in the middle of things. When the king fled London he established his court in York and it became a Royalist garrison and stronghold.
The city was besieged and battered in the civil war. One of the turning points of the war – the battle of Marston Moor – was fought to win the city for the Parliamentarians.
York survived – not only war but plague and religious upheaval. By the end of the 1600s it was emerging as the commercial and social hub of the north.